Categories and Classification

This theory or framework examines how markets and products are grouped into categories. This grouping serves many useful purposes, including communicating in simple terms what the product is because of the shared understandings. In some instances, products are very general and thus span multiple categories. This has been shown to have a negative impact. Another …

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Organizational Identity

Organizational Identity is defined as the members' collective, shared sense of who they are as an organization, collectively understood by an organization's members to be central, distinctive and enduring, collective-level, emergent and aspect of firm. Identification, on the other hand, is the degree to which a member defines him or herself by the same attributes …

Social Movements

There are many definitions for the concept of social movements. For instance, one definition focuses on social movements as a set of opinions that represents preferences for changing the social structure and or the reward distribution of a society (McCarthy & Zald, 1977). Another definition focuses on a collective attempt to change individuals or societal …

Social Network Theory

Social Network Theory (SNT) focuses on the relationship between two or more actors. The main concepts, then, are the actors also called nodes, and their relationship, or tie.  SNT is unique in that it is considered both a theory and a method. Network Analysis Image from my methods class It is a theory since it …

Institutional Theory

The institutional analysis of organizations has a long history (Parsons, 1956; Selznick, 1948, 1949, 1957).  Selznick focused on empirical analysis of organizations and their institutional environment and Parsons discussed how institutions integrate organizations in society by the use of authority, rules, and contracts (Powell, 1991; Scott & Davis, 2007). Often referred to as “old institutionalism,” …

Organizational Ecology

Organizational ecology theory has its roots in the natural selection work in biology. It is primarily concerned with the founding and death of organizations and organizational survival (Hannan & Freeman, 1977). In addition, this theory focuses on organizational populations as the main unit of analysis. Therefore, research using an ecological perspective tends to look at …

Resource Dependence

Resource Dependency Theory (RDT) acknowledges that every organization needs resources to function. These resources can be found both within and outside an organization. When the resources are outside the focal organization, it leads to interdependence and therefore uncertainty. Thus the central ideas of RDT deal with power over resources, the strategies organizations employ to gain …

Contingency Theory

Contingency theory is primarily concerned with the idea that the organization should fit their internal organization to the environment.  This theory is focused on the individual organization and the choices made by the designers of the organization. In particular when it comes to the structure and scope that will yield the best outcomes. The concept …

Sociological Foundations of Strategic Management

Strategic management is, at its core, about how managers can transform environmental factors along with internal organizational resources to make decisions. These decisions should be based on goals and plans of action for reaching them.  The overarching goal is to guide the organization into the future in a dominant competitive position. Given the importance of …